Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Common Good in Hobbes, De Tocqueville and Marx :: Philosophy Politics Papers
The Common Good in Hobbes, De Tocqueville and Marx Political philosophies are those theories and ideas that seek to study the impact of various political idealisms on society, and their impact in the shaping of social, political, and economic ideas. The questions which political philosophy seeks to turn its attention towards range from describing what the state of Man actually is at the existential level, to the types of social regimes, which are necessary to tame and organise that nature. In this context, there is a measure of truth in the suggestion that the answers, or visions they give are not, necessarily, entirely original. Plato, the student of Socrates, was himself keenly interested in political philosophy and set himself the task of conceptually evolving a society which would function properly. Plato's ideal society was comprised of rulers, guardians, and the masses. All these various strands within society are moulded at a young age to play a societal role, in order that they might contribute positively and affirmingly to t he betterment of their own social arena. Within the context of the history of political philosophy, Plato emerges as one of the more gifted political theorists, if not, perhaps, the best. While closely examining the needs of society, he was able to recognise the needs of society as well as the needs of the individual. He humbled the ego of Man when he acknowledged that one individual could not survive on his own and that all people are dependent on others to survive. His idea of an organised community has been the focus of many political philosophy debates and has been the stepping-stone by which many political philosophers have created their own ideal social environment. Though their theories may not be identical to those of Plato, signs of his structures are definitely present. Thomas Hobbes, the seventeenth century political philosopher, had some theories and ideas keenly similar to those of Plato. Hobbe's view of the state of nature was a very primitive one: he felt that in the state of nature there was a war of every person against every person. In the natural state justice was impossible, because without set limits and structures, everyone has the right to do whatever they wish and anarchy is almost inevitable. The only ay to escape the unfortunate state of anarchy was for everyone to agree a covenant. The conditions of the covenant were to give the sovereign full discretion in dealing with citizens.